Tag Archive | "DNA"

Protein Supplements – Are They Beneficial For Athletes?


The proteins in the diet can be used for all three main functions of food: as a component of most tissues in the body, as a source of energy, and for regulating metabolism . For the athlete, it is customary to use intentionally instead of carbohydrates for energy, but it is critical for maintaining and building muscle and regulate metabolism during exercise. Adequate dietary protein is necessary to maintain a positive protein balance to accomplish these tasks. Particular amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and valine, which are branched chain amino acids or BCAA, represent a significant part of muscle tissue.

branched chain amino acid supplementation was thought to improve athletic performance by preventing or decreasing protein degradation and prevent adverse changes in neurotransmitter function. Studies of fatigue during prolonged exercise show that it is related to the increase of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. A high ratio of free tryptophan / BCAA in the blood can lead to a greater production of serotonin and thus to fatigue feelings and perceived increased effort. It is also known that serum levels of BCAAs, which are metabolized primarily in the muscles, drop during prolonged exercise. Research has shown that taking oral BCAA will increase serum and can be used as energy fuel and reduce protein breakdown during exercise.

Research has also shown that the addition of amino acids in the blood facilitates release of HGH or human growth hormone. HGH stimulates the production of IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor) which promotes the growth of tissue, including muscle. Oral intake of amino acids such as glutamine, arginine, lysine or ornithine, in high doses can also increase the levels of hormones, but can cause some gastric problems to go with it.

Bovine colostrum is another supplement in the protein category which is widely used to enhance athletic performance. Studies show that its use is in adults for security settings. The main benefit of colostrum appears to be in its enhancement of immunity and healing properties. It contains high levels of immunoglobulin G, and lactopeptides to regulate the immune system. Colostrum has also been proven to heal damage to the intestinal mucosa caused by anti-inflammatory drugs or ulcerative intestinal diseases, and to encourage the growth of appropriate bacteria while destroying harmful bacteria and fungi. It contains growth promoting factors which stimulate the circulation of amino acids into muscle cells, DNA synthesis and cell division. The most powerful is the one that colostrum is collected in the first 24 hours, preferably the first 8 hours after the birth of the calf.

Since IGF-1 and HGH are banned substances in athletics, it is a major concern for any competitive athlete to avoid anything that could lead to positive doping tests. The American College of Sports Medicine found no positive results for both substances after four weeks of supplementation with bovine colostrum.

normal protein intake lasts about 0.8-1.4 grams per kg of body weight, while the amount suggested for those in the formation is from 1.6 to 2.8 g per kg body weight body. The higher protein intake creates a more positive protein balance, the higher the body weight tends to be gained lean body mass. Since protein supplements are not all created equal, it pays to read the list of contents to be sure of the amount of protein, calories and carbohydrates per serving. If weight gain is a priority, opt for the more high-calorie high protein. To stay slim, take the higher protein with fewer calories and fat. It should also be noted that the increased protein in the diet may lead to more acidic urine and increased calcium excretion. An average increase of 1 gram dietary protein results in the loss of 1 mg of calcium in the urine, so it is important to ensure sufficient calcium is included in the diet.

Protein supplementation is not a substitute for a balanced, nutritious meals, but is an effective way for athletes in hard training to increase their protein intake without much additional volume, calories, fat or carbs in their diet.

Source by Lorrie Wren

Posted in UncategorizedComments (0)

Protein Synthesis

The protein synthesis process involves many parts of the cell, the main steps occur in the nucleus and ribosomes. Unlike other similar products, this process is very complex and precise and should be done in the right order to work effectively.

The process involves two steps are transcription and translation. With the process of synthesis of DNA in a form of RNA called mRNA is used it is used to transport a model for ribosomes where translation occurs, the mRNA is protein synthesis is more effective.

The first step involves transcription of DNA sequence by breaking the hydrogen bonds, and an area will be copied to RNA; This is known as a cistron. A strand of this DNA will be a model and free nucleotides complementary bases it meets next. This process involves an enzyme called RNA polymerase which moves along this part and assembles the mRNA nucleotides into a strand. After the actions of the enzyme DNA will wind up by reforming hydrogen bonds. DNA mirror images will now be trained and will go out of free ribosomes and rough ribosome core of the endoplasmic reticulum.

The next step is to have the translation, it requires tRNA and mRNA that is in the form of a cloverleaf molecules due to loop over the other due to hydrogen bonds. The task is to pick up and transport the amino acids to the ribosomes and it has a site where the amino acids attached. There are 20 types of a tRNA for each amino acid attaching an amino acid to the tRNA is known as activation.

to ribosomes there are two sites known as the P and a ribosome sites move along the mRNA. The ribosome attaches to two specified codons and tRNA corresponding to the codons attaches to the ribosome and anticondon site tRNA attaches to the mRNA codon. On the P site of a peptide bond is formed between the amino acids and the ribosome moves diameter and the energy created by breaking the bond between the tRNA and the release of the amino acid is used to form a bond peptide to the previous amino acid and following. More than a ribosome can read this code at some point if a large amount of protein can B occurred. The arrangement of the peptide chain depends on the arrangement of the codons of mRNA, is what allows different proteins.

Source by Carl S. Richardson

Posted in UncategorizedComments (0)

Whey Protein and Body Building

When you put a lot of time and effort in the development, it only makes sense to help your body make the most of it. Feeding your body before and after your workout is a simple and important step to avoid evil and to feed your muscles. Whey supplies many nutrients needed to increase the effectiveness of your workout, and has long been used by beginners, intermediate and advanced bodybuilders both before and after training.

Your body can digest whey very quickly and increases amino acid levels available to your muscles to effectively increase the mass. During a workout, whey opens the veins to blood flow better, increasing the level of oxygen and nutrients available. The muscles torn down during your workout will be repaired faster with protein building blocks will be available to rebuild them.

Forms of Whey Protein

The three major forms of protein concentrated whey are isolated, and the hydrolyzate. Concentrates are low in fat and cholesterol but generally have more carbohydrates. They generally contain proteins of 29% to 89%. Isolates had the fat removed and lactose, and typically is at least 90% by weight of proteins. Hydrolysates are pre-digested, making them easier to absorb, but they are usually the most expensive.

Whey Protein Nutrition

Whey protein is a complete source of all essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While all of these amino acids are important, leucine and cysteine ​​are of great interest to bodybuilders. Whey protein also provides B vitamins B6, B12, pantothenic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, which are all important for the formation of muscle and brain function. Whey protein is an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, magnesium and selenium.

Whey contains large amounts of leucine, which helps initiate protein synthesis and helps you recover faster and exercise with less stress. Leucine is an essential amino acid used by the liver, muscle and adipose tissue to form sterols and promote muscle protein synthesis. It slows the breakdown of muscle tissue and stimulates muscle growth and is considered one of the most important muscle building amino acids.

cysteine ​​is used by your body to the antioxidant glutathione, which is an antioxidant that defends your body against free radicals and toxins. Cysteine ​​is a nonessential amino acid, which means your body can do it, but in times of extreme stress or during muscle building diagrams, filling is helpful. In addition, cysteine ​​cycle regulates nitric oxide which provides additional nutrients and oxygen to your cells and helps remove lactic acid and toxins, prevent pain. Glutathione is important for proteins, DNA and the synthesis of prostaglandins, the DNA repair, for the transport of amino acids, and for the activation of enzymes.

Dietary Considerations about whey

If you are allergic to casein, you are probably allergic to whey. If you are lactose intolerant, highly hydrolyzed whey is generally not as allergenic than other forms of whey. Some whey labels say they do not contain β-lactoglobulin or beta-lactoglobulin, which is usually casein which contains the most allergens.

Whey is unsuitable for strict vegans or vegetarians unless it does not contain rennet. Although Whey is a by-product of cheese making, most cheese using rennet to curdle cheese, and rennet is harvested Baby cows or cattle. There is some cheese makers who do not use rennet, which would be suitable for strict vegetarians.

Source by Anthony Leger

Posted in UncategorizedComments (0)

What is Protein? A Simple Definition

Most people understand the protein as a nutrient the body needs to function in a healthy and normal manner, that and the fact that you can get to eat steak. This is true, but certainly not limited to that. It is not only a healthy diet and good nutrition. Proteins probably play one of the biggest parts in the development of the human anatomy. This is one of the most basic building blocks of our body. Bones for example, are best known for being made of calcium, but did you know that it is about a quarter of protein? The muscles in our body, our organs and immune system are mainly composed of protein.

PROTEIN by definition. Protein comes from the Greek word “proteios” which means holding the first place. Proteins that we get from what we eat are converted into different types of molecules. Our muscles, organs and immune system are mainly composed of protein. The protein is also essential for DNA construction, a genetic code that is unique for each individual. Most of our dry weight (the body part that is not made of water) is made up of protein. The bones (as mentioned above), muscles, tissues and skin are few.

BASICS. Specifically, proteins that we get are made of something more basic. They are called acid amines. These organic compounds such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sometimes sulfur. These organic compounds react with each other to form a bond. This bond or reaction is essential Construction for the molecule as suggested earlier. In addition, there are more than 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Of these, there are about 13 amino acids that our body can produce on its’ own. You do not even think about it. However, at least nine amino acids must be completed. They are called essential amino acids. Examples are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, selenocysteine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. These are the ones we need to get out of the protein-rich food we take.

Other than amino acids, sugar and protein bond (usually from carbohydrates), lipids (fats), or even metal (iron). For example, certain organic compounds which react with the iron in hemoglobin form. These pigments in the red blood cells that are responsible to carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide in the tissues by the blood flow. In other words, the hemoglobin are proteins which iron atoms. Protein also serves as a main ingredient for antibodies. Antibodies within the immune system to help us resist infection by blocking and protect our body against foreign intruders.

protein deficiency. Everyone said, the lack of protein can cause a lot of damage throughout the body of a person. On one hand, it can lead to reduced intelligence and mental retardation. People who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease lack specific proteins to the brain. In Third World countries alone, protein-energy malnutrition kills 10 million every year. Protein deficiency is very common in poor overcrowded country. This is where hunger usually occurs raising the rates of malnutrition. Developing countries also reports of deficiency in protein but especially adults. Diet or crash diet to lose weight is one reason.

There is much more to the particular protein once you break it down piece by piece. We must understand the proper use of protein to determine what role it plays in the human body and how to use it. It does not stop with what is on the dining table.

Source by Martha Casantosan

Posted in UncategorizedComments (0)

Protein and Amino Acids: How Your Body Breaks Down and Uses Protein

Many endurance athletes avoid protein in an effort to avoid “bundling.” The human body needs protein not only damaged muscle repair, but to function normally. By adding the right amount for your recovery plan, help you keep your muscles healthy and primed for their next workout.


Unfortunately, the protein we eat is in a different order than the needs of the body, so it must be broken down into its smallest form (known as the name of amino acids) before the body can then build back into the DNA sequence that needs.Our determines this sequence.

Amino Acids

Amino acids are molecules that contain at least one carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group (NH2). They are created (synthesized) in plants, animals and even humans.

complete protein

Amino acids that humans can not synthesize are called essential and those that humans can synthesize are called non-essential. A food that contains all the essential amino acids is called a complete protein, such as whey or animal protein. It is also possible to combine incomplete proteins, such as beans and nuts, to create a complete protein.


Protein digestion occurs in the stomach and small intestine, with the help of the pancreas. The stomach secretes an enzyme which is 20% of the protein digestion, whereas the pancreatic enzymes are responsible for the majority of the protein digestion. When the protein allows the small intestine, it is in the form of polypeptides (short chains of amino acids) and individual amino acids. The small intestine complete the digestion process, breaking the polypeptides di- and tri-peptides (chains of amino acids 2 and 3) that the intestinal cells are able to absorb.

amino acids in the body

The body uses amino acids for energy and to repair damaged tissue. Any excess is converted into keto acids and urea. Keto acids can be converted by the body into glucose to be used for energy or stored as fat. Urea is secreted into the sweat and urine.

Muscle repair

When the muscles expand and contract during intense exercise, they are damaged. The body uses the amino acids in the blood to repair those muscles. Protein also contributes to muscle repair by building enzymes in the body. Over time, these enzymes allow muscles to adapt to endurance sports, reducing pain and decreasing recovery time.

When to take Protein

The body can process up to 30 grams of protein at a time. For this reason timing protein intake is also important that total protein intake. After a workout, your body is primed to protein intake. 10-20 grams of protein at a time immediately before and after a workout is sufficient to meet your body’s recovery needs. Whey protein has even been shown to be present in blood as little as 15 minutes after ingestion.

recommended protein intake

The body is only capable of processing up to.91 grams of protein per day per pound of body weight. Thus, a person 180 pounds can handle no more than 160 grams of protein a day. For most athletes, the following table shows the recommended intake of protein per pound per day (the number in parentheses is the total grams for £ 180 person)

sedentary :. 0.36 g / lb (65 g per day)

3-5 workouts per week: 0.45 g / lb (81 g per day)

5+ workouts per week :. 0.55 g / lb (99 g per day)

Endurance training with sufficient good time to recovery of protein will keep your muscles healthy and primed for their next workout

Source by Mitchell Vanderkodde

Posted in UncategorizedComments (0)

Macronutrients – Protein

Which proteins

Proteins are complex molecules ?; they consist of amino acids linked. A protein is a “macronutrient,” meaning that the body needs relatively large amounts to function effectively. The protein is most vital macronutrient because it builds and maintains the structure of the body. The body is not capable . to use any protein in a single protein used is converted into carbohydrates and used immediately for energy, or it is stored as fat body does not store protein;. therefore, n has no reservoir to draw on when it needs a new supply. For example, if a person consumes a lot of protein Monday, it is not available on Tuesday. The protein consumed at breakfast is pretty well used by . lunchtime Proteins are the building blocks of all animal tissues; In addition, about 17% of our bodies are made up of proteins At least 10,000 different proteins make each person who they are. to keep them that way. Because the muscles are built from protein, people need to consume and synthesize enough protein to maintain hard-working muscles healthy. The body is unable to use the dietary protein directly, even if the amino acids present in food and in the body are the same. The protein is ingested; Then, the digestive enzymes break down the protein into shorter chain amino acid polypeptides (peptides) and then, and finally into individual amino acids. Amino acids then enter the circulation and travel to the cells where they are incorporated into proteins the body needs.


proteins form the main structural elements of the body, and are found in every cell and tissue. Some of the benefits received from protein consumption are:

– Growth and Development

– tissue repair. The protein is the only macronutrient that promotes lean tissue growth

– Protects immune function

– Aids in the digestion process

– Power Source: When carbohydrates and fats are unable to meet the energy needs of the body, proteins can be broken down and used as a source of backup power.

– produces hormones and essential enzymes: protein helps the synthesis of enzymes and hormones, maintaining fluid balance, and regulate vital functions that the construction of antibodies against infection , blood coagulation and the formation of scars. Protein also helps to make enzymes the body uses to send messages that provide a person with the ability to see, think, hear and move

– health functions :. Protein promotes healthy bones, teeth, skin, hair, nails.

Food Sources

protein found in foods that provide enough essential amino acids are known as complete proteins; otherwise, it is an incomplete protein. Meat protein and dairy baked is from 15% to 40%, and that of cooked cereals, beans, lentils and peas only 3% to 10%. All meat and other animal products are sources of complete proteins. For example: beef, lamb, pork, poultry, eggs, fish, shellfish, milk and dairy products, vegetable sources of dietary protein. Plant foods contain the same amino acids as animal foods, but in different amounts. Proteins in foods such as most grains, fruits and vegetables are incomplete proteins, being either down, or missing, one of the essential amino acids. Plant protein sources may be combined with other plant or animal products to form a complete protein; Examples include the following: rice and beans, milk and wheat grain, corn, and beans. Plant foods that are considered complete proteins include nuts, soy foods (tofu, tempeh, miso, and soy milk), sprouted seeds (each type of germ differs in nutrient proportions , consuming a variety), cereals (especially amaranth and quinoa, higher in protein), beans and legumes (especially when eaten raw), Spirulina and Chlorella or blue-green algae (protein more than 60%).

Amino acids make up proteins. There are about 20 amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. These amino acids build DNA, cell membranes, hormones, receptors, brain chemicals, and many other molecules in the body. The two amino acids produced in the liver and those derived from the breakdown of proteins we eat are absorbed into the bloodstream and are taken up by cells and tissues to build new proteins as needed. Nine of the twenty amino acids needed by humans are considered “essential” because they come from the nutrition plan of the individual; the other 11 are considered “non-essential” because the body can do. A complete protein contains all the essential amino acids in an amount necessary for the body.

There are nine amino acids that are essential to your health. They are essential because your body can not produce them itself. They consist of the following:

– isoleucine

– leucine

– lysine

– methionine

– phenylalanine

– Threonine

– Tryptophan

– Valine

-. Histidine

Non-essential amino acids can be prepared from the essential amino acids

Other amino acids needed include:

– Arginine

– cystine

– glutamine

– Glycine

– Proline

– Tyrosine

– Alanine

– aspartic acid

– Hydroxyproline

– Serine

protein intake

Each day, the body uses more protein than we are able to the contribution; therefore, the body needs to consume enough protein continues to maintain a healthy lifestyle. If the body does not get enough protein through food, the individual will begin to start using proteins in the body, including muscle proteins. In healthy rule, consuming 20% ​​-35% of total calories an individual nutrition should come from protein.

When maintaining a healthy lifestyle, consume about 0.5 grams of protein per body weight is suggested. For example, if a person weighs 150 pounds, they should consume 75 grams of protein in their total caloric intake.

Increase the amount of protein intake is needed when a person is trying to gain muscle mass and size. A person weighing 150 pounds should consume 1.0 to 1.5 grams of protein for their total caloric intake. Therefore, the consumption of protein should be about 150 to 225 grams of protein. Maintain a nutritionally rich in protein for long periods can cause unhealthy conditions. Therefore, when looking to increase muscle size, creating a nutritionally rich in protein must be turned on and off to allow the body time to recover from the increased consumption of protein. High protein supplementation can damage the liver and kidney disease, which causes your body to process proteins ineffective.

If a person is a passionate coach of strength, a marathon runner, or just an average exerciser, a balanced diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, fish, and complex carbohydrates is what nutritionists recommend.

protein deficiency

Most Americans consume more than enough protein in their daily nutritional plans. A protein deficiency is defined as the consumption of 50% to 75% of the recommended daily amount of protein. When an individual does not consume enough protein, the body becomes deficient; just as it does for other micronutrients. The first sign of protein deficiency is weak muscles. Proteins play an important role in developing strong muscles. White spots on nails, brittle hair are often good indicators of protein deficiency. Serious deficiencies may have consequences for the body :. These include the deterioration of muscles and skin wrinkles

Source by Robert C. Fisher

Posted in UncategorizedComments (0)

Benefits of whey protein shakes

Benefits of whey protein shakes

Whey is a protein of athletes, bodybuilders in particular used to build muscles. Shakes of milk whey protein used normally after a training session, provide the body with the necessary protein, you need to repair the worn muscle fibers to help and facilitate the growth of new connections that lead to the formation of larger muscles. While still more research is needed to determine the long-term of serum for the health effects, recent studies show that serum has many health benefits, if taken in the right amounts.

In addition to building muscle mass through the synthesis of proteins, whey protein shakes are essential to reduce the loss of weight as fat mass. If taken before a strength training, it has been shown that serum will significantly reduce body fat and calorie burning increased until a day after the meeting. Overweight people who belong in your daily diet to make exercise and whey protein losing more body fat compared with those who are clearly not. Because serum helps to build muscle, it also helps to increase the metabolic rate, which also serve to burn fat. More important still, whey the process reduced the loss of muscle as a result of aging, since a source of highly digestible protein list.


Benefits of whey protein shake


Studies have also shown that the whey protein works to maintain your weight, because it is simply sufficiently hungry. Appetite to be delayed as a result and reduced calorie intake. Serum to reduce, together with his performance in the building of muscle mass and fat body, can be used as a powerful tool in any weight loss plan.

In addition to its role in the maintenance of the physical body of whey protein has also as useful in the prevention of cancer of the prostate that preliminary research at least. This is because the serum contains the amino acid cysteine, fighting much in the formation of the antioxidant glutathione, cancer cells. While they need to carry out further studies in this area, whey has shown until now promise as cancer and food increase the immune system. Whey protein shakes are also advantageous in wound healing and tissue repair. Due to its high content of antioxidants, whey helps neutralize free radicals, which cause diseases. It is also the oxidative stress, which leads to damage in DNA and cell mutations that lead to cancer, aging and other degenerative diseases.

Another advantage of the serum protein improves the function of the heart. Improvement there are blood vessel functions also improve overall cardiovascular health. Minimize high blood pressure and other diseases of the heart and the total circulation is improved.

While all these seem to focus on the physical benefits of whey, studies have shown is also huge psychological and emotional benefits especially for those under stress. Studies have shown that, if a person is under stress, your cognitive performance is reduced in the brain reduced serotonin levels. But with consumption of whey protein, increased levels of serotonin, which helps to relieve the body’s response to stress. The store is also improved.


Enhanced by Zemanta

Posted in FeaturedComments (0)

Recent Comments