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Whey Protein Concentrates And Their Functional Properties

Whey Protein Concentrates (WPC) are made as powders by drying the ultrafiltration retentates (UF) whey. They are described in terms of their protein concentration, the percent protein content of the dry matter, which is 25 to 80%. To obtain a product containing 35% protein, the liquid whey must be concentrated to about 5 times, which has a total solids of 8%. Concentration by ultrafiltration at a level of 25 to 30 times is necessary to achieve 80% of protein in the WPC with a total solids content of 25%

What are the functional properties


The functional properties are defined as properties that determine the overall behavior of proteins in foods during production, processing, storage and consumption. Whey proteins have two types of properties viz. and nutrition. As regards to the nutritional characteristics, the whey protein concentrates are rich in essential amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan, cystine, methionine and enabling its use in foods for infants and the elderly food and enrichment in grains. Whey proteins are known for their high solubility in a broad pH range (lower the pH, the higher the solubility), better ventilation properties, the ability to form gels at high temperatures, and most of the water and fat binding properties.

The important functional properties of whey protein concentrates can be listed as follows.

solubility in water

The solubility of whey protein is considered the most important because it affects other functional properties such as gelling, foaming and emulsifying properties. When the temperature rises, the solubility of the whey protein is lost, because they are sensitive to heat. Among them, the immunoglobulins are more sensitive as they are denatured at a temperature of 70 ° C followed by alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and serum albumin withstands temperatures up to 100 ° C.

The proteose peptone component is more resistant to heat between the protein component of small whole milk. Heat denaturation is nothing but breaking the sulfur bridge in the molecule leading to an unfolding and insolubility. The insolubility reaches its maximum at pH 4, but even at this level, the solubility is about 60%.

Water absorption capacity

The maximum water absorption whey protein concentrate occurs when exposure is between 5-10 min. But sodium caseinate and soy protein isolates are capable of water better than the concentrates of absorbent whey proteins. The water absorption is less affected by changes in pH, salt concentration generally favors but particularly when the heating temperature is about 80 ° C. This property can be used in industry the bakery.

Gel forming ability

Conduct of protein chains coupled with an amino acid exposure cause gel formation. This is due to the formation of ionic hydrogen bonds. When chains of proteins are bound by hydrogen bonds, cavities are formed in the water and absorb the formed structure is a network of three dimensions around the water pockets. Heating causes the deployment and the temperature is high, the formed gel is stronger. If 80% concentrate WPC is heated, gel formation can be observed on cooling.

foaming capacity

foaming is nothing other than the incorporation of air to form a stable structure. Foam formation depends on partial unfolding of the protein chains at the air-liquid interface. Denatured whey protein having poor whipping properties and have better property whipping, severe heat treatment of whey protein should be avoided. But the mild heat treatment tends to promote or improve the ability to whip whey protein.

foaming can be measured by time whipping over run and foam stability. The highest price term is obtained when the whey protein is at its highest solubility in which there will be a small but not zero distortion. Whey protein concentrate is a better substitute for egg white, whose use in foods is challenged by strict vegetarians.

emulsifying ability

The surface properties of the whey protein are good emulsifying agents. The surface properties also govern the foaming qualities and whisk due to the reduction of the interfacial tension between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components in food. This property is common in high-fat foods and water. emulsifying capacity may be defined as the amount of oil which can be emulsified by certain amount of protein before the phase inversion or the collapse of the emulsion.

Emulsion Stability is defined as the ability of the protein to form an emulsion which remains unchanged over time and conditions. The emulsifying capacity or the capacity is directly dependent on the solubility of the whey protein. Thus, the factors that influence the solubility in turn regulate the formation of the emulsion.


The nutritional value of whey protein concentrate is significantly higher compared to other forms of protein.


Nature proteins

biological value


Whey protein



whole egg protein



milk proteins



beef protein






Potato proteins



Wheat protein


There may be deducted from the above table that the biological value of casein is lower than the whey protein because it is deficient in many essential amino acids.

Source by Thenmozhi Kathirvelu

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Review of the Changing Protein Requirements for Seniors

youth, it is said, is wasted on the young. Too busy life figure they take hardly any time to enjoy it. Fortunately, with medical research and scientific progress, life expectancy has doubled in the last century. We can now start life at fifty and one going to the youth. awareness of health, diet and appropriate exercise, can make the last years of life a pleasant experience. Dietary principles play particularly important role in this regard. Compensating for the physiological changes of aging, they may give us a better chance to reach our life expectancy genetically determined.

The advancing years experience a complex interplay of changes affecting the mind, body and environment. Changes in cellular function organs and systems can often predispose to malnutrition and a host of chronic diseases (1999) Servan. Some of these problems can be attributed to the decrease in the total protein content and are in themselves preventable with appropriate attention to the protein content of the diet.

A decrease in the turnover of proteins, such as that seen in aging, has significant effects (Chernoff 2004). Systems of vital organs like the heart and lungs slow down, becoming incapable of further effort. Neural processes like thought, planning and cognition are also affected. The immune system becomes weak and having a delay in the treatment of difficult infections (Thompson, 1987). Healing and wound repair, which requires a constant supply of amino acids, is also compromised.

Another problem associated with aging is reduced ability to deal with free radical species. These highly reactive molecules are produced by cells under stress. Free radicals can precipitate a chain reaction, the deleterious cellular membranes and the genetic code. They have been implicated in a variety of pathological processes of infection, heart attacks and cancer. This inability to handle free radicals is also responsible for aging. It is now believed a high protein diet may help to alleviate many of these problems (Chernoff 2004).

providing merely proteins through regular diets fail to meet the special needs of the elderly. A protein supplement is often needed to ensure easy digestion, rapid absorption and assimilation. The protein supplement should also be of good quality and contain all the essential amino acids in sufficient quantities. This supplement can provide enough essential amino acids, regardless of the ability of the intestine to absorb them. This protein supplement will be able to meet the demand of increasing protein and malnutrition seen in the elderly, restoring the ability to build and repair tissue. A good protein supplement also has other important benefits in elderly people who are often overlooked.

A high protein diet has an effect or to burn fat “thermogenic. The body spends more energy to assimilate protein than carbohydrates or fats. This energy is often derived from adipose tissue, thus burning fat in exchange for protein (Bloomgarden 2004). Then if the protein supplement present in the whey, it can also inhibit the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine, reducing the risk of obesity and heart disease (Nagaoka 1996). Protein supplements that have casein can form a clot in the intestine, slowing intestinal motility (Boirie et al., 1997) and can give enough time intestine to absorb all acids amino meals. This property is important since aging also slows down and compromises digestion.

protein supplements that combine casein with whey multiply the advantages of each component. Both casein and whey proteins have a group of substances called kinins that can lower blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels (Fitzgerald, 2004). Both proteins enhance the immune system through several mechanisms (Ha and Zemel, 2003). Lactoferrin, whey protein, binds iron and depriving many micro-organisms of a growth stimulus. Free iron induces the formation of free radicals and is one of the factors of colon cancer. This is also prevented by protein supplements that contain lactoferrin (whey).

Whey also has other antioxidants to offer. It is rich in cysteine, a glutathione precursor that is mighty to mop up free radicals (Counous, 2000). This generalized improvement in antioxidant capacity can counter cancerous processes and aging seen in the last years of life. Whey protein is also known to enhance memory as it promotes the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is involved in cognition and thought (Markus 2002). Milk protein, whey component has the ability to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of bone-forming cells and suppress bone resorption as found in vitro and animal studies. This can protect against weak bones, or osteoporosis, particularly in postmenopausal women (Toba 2000).

There are so abundant medical literature in support of a high-protein, casein and whey supplement in the elderly population. These studies have also failed to document the major adverse effects that long-term intake of these supplements. This supplement can go a long way to making the last years of productive and fruitful life.

ABOUT Protica

Founded in 2001, Protica, Inc. is a nutritional research firm with offices in Lafayette Hill and Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. Protica manufactures foods, including Profect capsulized a hypoallergenic, compact beverage ready to drink protein containing zero carbohydrates and zero fat. Information on Protica is available at http://www.protica.com

You can also learn about Profect at http://www.profect.com


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2 .. Bloomgarden ZT, diet and diabetes. Diabetes Care, Volume 27, Number 11, 2004

3. Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P Vasson, MP et al. (1997) Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accumulation. Proclamations of the National Academy of Sciences, 94 :. 14930-14935

4. Bounous G (2000). Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and glutathione modulation in the treatment of cancer. Anticancer Res. 20: 4785-4792

5. Campbell WW, Crim MC, Dallal GE, Young VR and Evans WJ (1994) .Increased the protein requirements in elderly people: new data and retrospective reassessments. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 60, 501-509.

6. R Chernoff (2004). Proteins and the elderly. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 23, 627S-630S.

7. Counous, G (2000). Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and glutathione modulation in the treatment of cancer. Anticancer Research, 20: 4785-4792

8. FitzGerald RJ, Murray BA, et. D J Walsh (2004). Hypotensive peptides of milk proteins. J. Nutr. 134 :. 980S-988

9. Ha, E. and Zemel, MB (2003). Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 14 :. 251-258

10. A. Hernanz, Ferna’ndez-Vivancos E. Montiel (2000). Changes in the content of homocysteine ​​and intracellular glutathione associated with aging. Life Sci, 67 :. 1317-1324

KD 11. Kent, WJ Harper, the Bomser JA (2003). Effect of whey protein isolate on intracellular glutathione and cell death induced by an oxidant in the human prostatic epithelial cells. Toxicol In Vitro, 17 (1) :. 27-33

12. Lands LC, Grey VL Smountas AA (1999). Effect of supplementation with a cysteine ​​donor on muscular performance. J Appl Physiol 87 :. 1381-1385

13. MacKay D. Miller AL, 2003. Nutritional support for wound healing. Altern Med Rev; 8: 359-377

14. Markus CR, Olivier B and E Haan (2002). Whey protein rich in α-lactalbumin increases the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other neutral amino acids and improves cognitive performance in patients vulnerable to stress. Am J Clin Nutr, 75 :. 1051-6

15. Meyyazhagan S. Palmer R. M. (2002). Nutritional requirements with aging. Prevention of the disease. Clin Geriatr Med 18 :. 557-576

16. Nagaoka S (1996). Studies on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism induced by dietary food constituents or xenobiotics. Soc Jpn J Nutr Food Sci, 49 :. 303-313

RP 17. Servan Sanchez-Vilar O, Villar GN (1999). Geriatric nutrition. Nutr Hosp, 14 Suppl 2 :. 32S-42S

18. Shah NP (2000). Effects of bioactive compounds derived from milk: an overview. Br J Nutr 84 :. S3-S10

19. Thompson JS, Robbins J, Cooper JK (1987). Nutrition and immune function in the geriatric population. Clin Geriatr Med, 3 (2) :. 309-17

20. Toba Y, Takada Y, Yamamura J, et al (2000). Milk protein: a novel function of milk protect against osteoporosis. Os 27 :. 403-408

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22. Weinberg ED 1996. The role of iron in cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev., 5: 19-36

Source by Jim Duffy

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What is Whey Protein?

Protein contains amino acids and of the chain of amino acids Branch which are the building blocks for muscle (BCAA). Without enough amino acids the body can not repair and build muscle and thus if damage done by muscle training can be slow or non-existent. The body may be in a catabolic state, using more protein (muscle) that is being rebuilt. Different proteins contain different amounts and types of amino acids as well as with different absorption and digestion properties so benefits can be obtained from the use of combinations according to the formation of protein and dietary needs.

Good protein is obtained from whole food protein sources such as turkey breast, tuna, chicken, lean red meat, cottage cheese and milk, and protein supplements, popular aujourd ay because of the convenience, ease of use and economy.

Whey Protein

By far the most popular supplement available today protein is whey protein. Whey is one of two major milk proteins (casein is the other) and is isolated from milk by-product in the production of cheese and casein. Pure Whey contains a large amount of lactose milk sugar, as well as a variety of protein, fat and cholesterol.

Whey traditionally used to be considered a waste product and dumped on the fields and in the nearest lake. Fortunately whey was found to contain high quality protein and so methods have been developed to remove as much junk lactose, fat and cholesterol as possible of the protein. Developed original methods including acid treatment and high temperature drying. This unfortunately destroyed much of the protein and destroyed the quality of the extracted protein.

New methods have been developed that can extract the whey protein while maintaining its quality. The most common methods today are ultra-filtration, micro-filtration, ion exchange and tangential flow micro-filtration. Ultrafiltration and microfiltration using a low temperature process where proteins are physically separated by filters. The ion exchange process eliminates the protein through an ion exchange column that takes advantage of specific electronic charges of the protein, fat and lactose content in whey and uses opposite charges to extract each individual component. Crossflow microfiltration uses, non-chemical natural ceramic membranes to separate the non-denatured whey protein fat and denatured protein.

All these processes result in a high quality whey protein, low in fat and lactose. Always check the label for the method or methods were used, some of the cheapest protein may use whey proteins that have been treated with treatment less acid or high temperatures and contain high levels of undenatured protein . Undenatured protein are unusable by the body and result in whey with a bitter taste when consumed. A good quality protein powder will always be the list on the panel or ingredients on the label if it is microfilltered, ultrafiltration or ion exchange. If it lists just whey protein concentrate or isolate you can assume that it contains a cheap form of protein.

To build muscle you have to train hard, sleep well and eat your protein. Pretty simple actually. But with so many different protein sources available many people are confused about what their personal needs are and are not enough to eat and eat the wrong types of foods. When doing any kind of training, whether for muscle strength and gains in the gym, working endurance including running, cycling and swimming or sports team or individual, protein is crucial to help in recovery and help rebuild damaged muscle tissue.

Benefits of Whey Protein

There are several advantages to choosing whey protein over other protein sources. Whey protein has an extremely high biological value (BV) is granted (BV = 104 Whey Protein with Whey peptides having a BV of 110 to 159). The BV of a protein is essentially a measure of how it is used by the body, and takes into account the profile of amino acids, the solubility and digestibility of the protein. Whey protein is a great source of protein post workout because it is absorbed very quickly to help rebuild the damaged muscle.

Whey protein contains the highest percentage of BCAA from any source of protein and high levels of essential amino acids. Protection of BCAA muscle protein degradation and help to stimulate protein synthesis and muscle growth. Whey protein also contains protein fractions. These are the active components that high quality whey protein should contain. These include alpha-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, Glycomacro peptides and lactoferrin. These components have properties that support the immune system, act as antioxidants and may help cell growth and repair in the body.

Essential amino acids are important because the body can not manufacture these so and relies on obtaining from the diet.

Whey protein may also be suitable for some people with lactose intolerance because it is extremely low in lactose with whey protein isolates are virtually no lactose.

high quality whey protein tend to be relatively expensive whey protein isolates are the most expensive source of protein available. Many companies produce several different sizes of containers to be more economical. Whey protein is also low in phenylalanine essential amino acids and glutamine in comparison to other protein powders. Many brands add these two components to help increase the BV of the protein and improve efficiency.

With so many protein powders on the market, you could be forgiven for not worrying too much about that kind of protein you are using. Many people probably do not care whether they use is instantised protein, partially hydrolyzed, ultrafiltration, ion exchange whey protein isolate with low molecular weight peptides, whey protein fractions with full spectrum of whey, including Glycomacropeptides, Beta-lactoglobulin and Lactoperoxidase. If you understand this, then you probably do not need help. But if you’re like most people base their decision on where they are better taste or your favorite bodybuilder used to pack on twenty pounds of solid muscle, then you can find some useful information below.

Although it is not necessary to know exactly what all these terms mean, if you want to be able to make an informed choice and get the most of your training, it may be beneficial to know some -uns basic principles.

Whey Protein Basics

Lets start with the two major types of whey protein – whey protein concentrate (WPC) and whey protein isolate (WPI). As previously indicated whey protein is a by-product of the production of cheese and casein. Pure whey contains a large amount of lactose milk sugar, as well as a variety of proteins, fat and cholesterol. To remove unwanted components and produce a pure protein, different filtration techniques can be used. The most common are ultrafiltration and microfiltration, all processes at low temperatures and thus avoid denaturation of the protein.

The denaturation of the protein, which occurs through the use of inexpensive mining methods using high temperatures and acid treatment destroys the fractions of proteins important in lowering the biological activity or efficacy of the protein. Denaturation may also occur after manufacturing due to high temperatures. Never expose the whey protein at high temperatures and direct light of the sun for prolonged periods. Avoid leaving the protein in a hot car, next to the oven in the kitchen or any other source of heat. Also avoid using whey protein in recipes that use high heat -. Muffins, pancakes etc as this may denature the protein and


high quality WPC proteins are usually 70-85% and are quite low in fat and lactose.

WPI are, however, generally greater than 85% protein, some more 90% protein. The most common extraction methods used to produce WPI are ion exchange (IE), the cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) and ultrafiltration (UF). Because of the additional cost involved in the production of CFM and ultrafiltered whey isolate the majority of supplement manufacturers use ion exchange whey.

The (EI) ion exchange process produces the most pure protein, gram for gram (about 95% protein), compared to a microfiltration and removes the protein through an ion exchange column . This takes advantage of the specific electronic charges of the protein, fat and lactose in whey and uses opposite charges to extract each individual component. Unfortunately this process uses chemical reagents to control electrical loads. This may alter the level of pH and denaturing the whey by destroying some of the biologically active protein fractions.

Crossflow microfiltered (CFM) Whey Isolate is produced by passing the whey protein concentrate through, natural non-chemical ceramic membranes to remove the fat and denatured protein and protein is typically around 91%. As the chemicals are not used in this process, very little of the protein is denatured when the protein retains the important protein fractions.

protein fractions
protein fractions of whey are active components that have their own effects on health and can help improve immune function and improve recovery training

These include:

Beta-lactoglobulin – This is present in larger quantities but unfortunately is considered an allergen in the whey fraction. Good whey protein should be less than 50% of beta-lactoglobulin, however, the ion exchange process that particular fraction isolated easily and ionized WPI is high enough in this area. To avoid allergies to this, avoid whey protein with more than 70-80% beta-lactoglobulin. The higher the percentage of beta-lactoglobulin, more percentages of the fractions with higher biological value

Alpha-lactalbumin -. This nutrient fraction is in the highest levels seconds to about 15 to 20% and may also be. found in the milk of the mother

immunoglobulin (IgG) – This fraction helps boost the immune system with IgG having an activity of important antibodies in the body, helping support the immune system and disease prevention

beef. serum albumin (BSA) – this fraction is a glutathione precursor. Glutathione is an essential water-soluble antioxidant in the body that protects cells and serves as a primary detoxifying harmful compounds such as peroxides, heavy metals, carcinogens and many more. Betalactoglobulin and IgG fractions are also important sources of glutathione

Glycomacropeptides (GMP) -. GMP is a potent stimulator of cholecystokinin, which plays many essential roles relating to gastrointestinal function, including the regulation of food intake. In addition to being a food intake regulator, cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates gallbladder contraction and intestinal motility, regulates gastric emptying and stimulates the release of enzymes from the pancreas. Pancreatic enzymes are essential for complete digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates and therefore full nutritional realization of food. Also, CCK has the effect of slowing down the overall process of digestion by slowing intestinal contractions, thereby giving more digestive enzymes time to work on their respective substrates resulting from the more complete absorption. In animals, an increase of cholecystokinin is followed by a sharp reduction of food intake, such as digestion downturn, we perceive the “full” feeling more after a meal

lactoferrin (LF) -. This is quite significant fraction to effect promoting immunity. Lactoferrin (LF) is found in small quantities in the body, still appears to be a first immune defense line. LF is a powerful antioxidant and inhibits free radical reactions dependent iron by iron directly binding strongly. This effect results in the inhibition of binding of growth dependent iron bacteria, and can block the growth of many pathogenic bacteria and yeasts iron. Its antimicrobial activity can also improve antibiotics. In the digestive tract, LF can help by stimulating the growth of intestinal cells and enhancing the growth of “good” intestinal microflora

Lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, growth factors -. These are still very minor fractions are reported as the most biologically active. Lactoperoxidase (LP) has strong antimicrobial activity, and inactivates or kills a broad spectrum of microorganisms.

lysozyme present in very small amounts in cow’s milk, has antibacterial activity against a number of bacteria and works synergistically with lactoferrin against bacteria such as Salmonella species. Lysozyme is present in saliva, tears, and other body fluids, where it acts as a natural antibiotic.

include factors IGF-1 and IGF-2 growth. IGF-1, or the like-growth-factor with insulin, the hormone is released during the metabolism of the growth hormone, the amount produced which determines the extent of growth in children and strengthening muscles and lean body mass in adults. Studies have shown that IGF-1 increases in direct proportion to the quality and quantity of protein in the diet.

Hydrolysis of (predigesting) whey to di-, tri- and oligopeptides (short and long chain amino acids), increases the bioavailability (BV) whey, further increasing the release of IGF 1.

As you can see, the biggest differences between the two types of WPI is the immune and digestive implications of proteins with IE WPI missing three major protein fractions, lactoferrin (LF), lactoperoxidase ( LP) and Glycomacropeptides (GMP).

hydrolysates and peptides

The protein hydrolysates are essentially smaller. These products are made by subjecting the protein digestive enzymes, which the bursting of the large protein molecule in many smaller proteins. These proteins can be broken down into peptides (chains of two amino’S) or polypeptides (chains of three or more amino acids) and are broken down until they are the right size for absorption.

This process occurs naturally during the digestion but can take some time, up to several hours for whole foods. So it is possible to buy whey protein with added peptides or hydrolysates “predigested”. Hydrolysates are predigested when proteins are exposed to natural enzymes of vegetable or animal origin. Protein hydrolysates are advantages, they absorbed more easily and quickly.

They may be more beneficial after training when there is an increased need for amino acids. The amino acids are required to prevent the protein (muscle) failure, so that the sooner they can be absorbed better. Another factor effecting absorption rate is the molecular weight of the formula. The higher the molecular weight of the protein of the faster absorption. Whey proteins with whey peptides often indicate the weight in Daltons (D) of the protein :. ie MW 500D (low molecular weight), MW 80,000D (high molecular weight)

Choose What?

Selection of proteins to be used depends on what you are looking for. Using whey isolate, hydrolysed proteins and whey protein with added peptides provide increased recovery when used immediately after training because of their rapid absorption. However, during the day, when the absorption rate is not as important, the use of basic proteins such as whey protein concentrate, casein, and the whole food protein sources may be more economical. Many of the whey protein available today use a mixture of two or more peptides with different whey certain acids have been added. . These are advantages because they offer rapid absorption but are cheaper than some of the purest whey protein isolates

Some whey protein compositions are sought:

concentrated pure whey protein

Pharmasports Instantised 100% Whey – Ultrafiltered WPC. About 77% protein.

Reactiv Definition Whey – Ultrafiltered WPC. About 77% protein.

ultimate Leppin Whey – Ultrafiltered WPC. About 77% protein.

whey protein concentrate / isolate Mixtures

Balance 100% Whey – IE WPI, UF ​​WPC WPC hydrolyzed added L-glutamine, L-arginine. About 80% protein.

EAS 100% Whey – WPC, WPI. About 77% protein.

Optimum Nutrition 100% Whey – MF WPI, IE WPI, WPC UF, hydrolyzed whey peptides about 79-82% protein

Pure Whey Protein Isolates

ion exchange Balance Whey – IE WPI. About 88% protein (flavored)

Balance Whey protein ion exchange unflavoured Approximately 92%

Horleys ICE Whey – cation exchange WPI, approximately 90% protein


Source by Andrew Honore

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